The Securities and Exchange Commission thought that a particular individual was engaged in a
"pump and dump" scheme, which is where bloggers, commentators, anonymous "experts" or others tout a small cap stock on line in forums, chat rooms, etc. and often with false or deceptive material and then when the price gets a bump as a result, the persons doing the touting sell the stock for a profit.
The SEC wanted the identity of the person behind firstname.lastname@example.org and subpoenaed Google to get the information. Google notified the person and the person (using the clever pseudonym "John Doe") moved to quash the subpoena. The lower court denied the motion to quash and Mr. Doe appealed.
The Court found that Mr. Doe had made a prima facie showing that his First Amendment right of free speech was implicated and therefore, the burden shifts to the government to show: (i) the information sought was rationally related to a compelling governmental interest and (ii) the disclosure requirements are the least restrictive means of obtaining the desired information. The Court found that the government's interest in disclosure (being ancillary to a fraud investigation) trumped Mr. Doe's private interest in anonymity and that the information requested was the least restrictive means available.
Mr. Doe argued that the standard in Anonymous Online Speakers should be applied here instead of the Brock standard. The Court held that in Anonymous Online Speakers, there was no government interest at issue (i.e. it was between private parties) as there was in Brock and therefore the Brock standard should be applied, i.e. the government did not have to present evidence sufficient to overcome a summary judgment.
The Court overruled the motion to quash and John Doe is anonymous no more.